|The Friends of the Cloquet Valley State Forest is dedicated to the protection and preservation of the natural and cultural resources of The Cloquet Valley State Forest and promote responsible enjoyment of this unique treasure.|
The lands, lakes rivers and streams of Northern Minnesota which lay north of Duluth in the Clouqet Valley Sate Forest and in the Arrowhead are home to many people, plants and animals and serve the world in many ways. Exploring, protecting and learning about the Cloquet Valley State Forest and the Arrowhead is a wonderful pursuit. We hope you enjoy it.HERE
"That land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics.”Aldo Leopold
Wild Rice and Sulfide
MPCA makes a Proposal
The essence of what's proposed is that the MPCA has decided each body of wild rice water needs to be assessed separately. They assert "Some variables, especially iron and organic carbon in the sediment, affect the amount of sulfide produced from sulfate. So while sulfate may negatively affect wild rice, no single level of sulfate can be protective of wild rice in all water bodies. Sulfate is converted to sulfide in each water body differently depending on the concentrations of iron and organic carbon."
They've come up with an equation to figure out how much sulfide should be allowed in each water body. "An equation that accounts for the iron and organic carbon variability in sediment among water bodies can calculate a protective sulfate concentration for a water body that allows wild rice growth and self-perpetuation. The equation to calculate the proper sulfate concentration:
They assert that " Wild rice waters: The standard will apply in lakes, streams, and wetlands that are wild rice waters. MPCA has compiled a draft list of wild rice waters, along with a process to add waters to the list over time. The agency proposes that a sulfate standard is not needed to protect commercial rice paddies."
Problems that have been pointed out are that there is scant or no peer reviewed research that backs up the assertions, that the time till planned implementation leaves the waters unprotected and mines not held accountable, that water flows and as such what impacts one area in one way will impact another area differently.
There seems to be little doubt that there is inordinate pressure on the agency to make it possible for the mining companies to do what they want to. The regulations seem as if they will be very difficult to enforce.
Duluth Reader Iron not a Panacea
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